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1901 | IJ wordt afgesloten van de Zuiderzee

Voor de oude Waterlandse Zeedijk bij Nieuwendam lag in het IJ altijd al buitendijks land. Omdat het IJ in verbinding stond met de Zuiderzee, was het water zout en er was eb en vloed.

Er groeiden geen bomen, want die kunnen niet tegen zout water. In 1872 is het IJ afgesloten van de Zuiderzee. Sindsdien is er geen eb en vloed meer in het IJ. In deze tijd is ook het Noordzeekanaal gegraven. De daarbij vrijkomende bagger werd voor het buitendijkse land gestort. Het aldus ontstane land werd de Nieuwendammerham genoemd.

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1901 |Vestiging zwavelzuurfabriek Ketjen

In 1901 vestigde de zwavelzuurfabriek Ketjen zich aan het IJ bij het Zijkanaal naar Nieuwendam. Deze fabriek was afkomstig uit de binnenstad van Amsterdam.

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1912 | Aanleg van het Vliegenbos

(Gravure van Engelien Reitsma-Valença uit 1922, bron Stadsarchief Gemeente Amsterdam)
In 1912 werd gestart met de aanleg van een wandelbos, op aandringen van Willem Hubert Vliegen. Omdat de woningnood in Amsterdam in die tijd enorm was, werden er plannen gemaakt voor woningenbouw in de Nieuwendammerham.

Tussen 1909 en 1921 is de Vogelbuurt (inclusief Vogeldorp) gebouwd. Gemeenteraadslid en kamerlid Willem Hubert Vliegen stelde voor om een groot stadsbos van 35 hectare aan te leggen. Een ‘Bosch voor de arbeiders, onder de rook van Amsterdam, een stukje vrije natuur waaraan de stad zoozeer behoefte heeft.’ Het college van Burgemeester en Wethouders was niet enthousiast, maar hij kreeg het voor elkaar.

In 1912 werd met de aanleg van het bos begonnen, naar ontwerp van de directeur Publieke Werken, A.W. Bos en architect M.Ph.J.H. Klijnen. Het moest geen park worden, maar een echt stadsbos. De officiële naam was aanvankelijk ‘IJbosch’. In de volksmond heette het al snel het Vliegenbos en na het overlijden van Willem Hubert Vliegen veranderde de naam officieel in W.H. Vliegenbos.

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1945 | Bomen gekapt

In de Tweede Wereldoorlog is ongeveer 85% van de bomen in het Vliegenbos gekapt voor brandhout. Na de oorlog waren er alleen nog bomen over in de buurt van het afweergeschut van de Duitsers waar niemand durfde te komen. Maar het Vliegenbos was taai: de bomen groeiden al snel weer op vanuit de stobben. (Foto: Historisch Centrum Amsterdam Noord)

In de loop van de jaren is een flink stuk van het Vliegenbos ook nog gebruikt voor andere doeleinden dan stadsbos. Aan de kant van de Meeuwenlaan zijn twee grote schoolgebouwen gebouwd. Na de oorlog verschenen aan de noordkant onderaan de Nieuwendammerdijk twee verenigingsgebouwen, een camping van 3,5 hectare en een sportterrein. Van de oorspronkelijke 35 hectaren bleven er maar 20 over voor het echte stadsbos.

In de uiterste punt van de noordoost hoek is momenteel een beeldentuin. Het stadsdeel voegde dit gedeelte toe aan het Vliegenbos, zodat bezoekers vanuit het bos uitzicht kregen op de haven en de sluis van Nieuwendam. Wellicht komt op deze plek in de toekomst een horecavoorziening, te midden van meer bij het bos passend groen.

(Foto: Historisch Centrum Amsterdam Noord)

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1984 | Het Bos wordt buffer

In de zestiger jaren breidde de zwavelzuurfabriek Ketjen (later als onderdeel van AKZO) sterk uit. Er ontstond een grote chemische fabriek die steeds meer milieuoverlast bezorgde.

Dit leidde onder meer tot de oprichting van actiegroep Tegengif, en het idee dat het Vliegenbos een buffer moest vormen tussen de chemische fabriek en de omliggende woongebieden. In 1984 werd de bufferfunctie officieel beleid, de recreatieve functie raakte ondergeschikt. De begroeiing werd dicht gehouden, om eventuele gifwolken tegen te kunnen houden.

Ook het Rietland is in deze tijd beplant met bomen die als buffer moesten fungeren. AKZO verkocht de fabriek in 2000; deels (onder meer productie van katalysatoren) aan Albemarle, het gevaarlijke deel met de productie en opslag van SO2 aan PVS Chemicals. In 2004 staakte PVS Chemicals de productie en opslag van SO2, in 2007 werd de zwavelzuurfabriek gesloopt.

Het resterende deel van de chemische fabriek van Albemarle is in de afgelopen jaren veel veiliger geworden. De katalysatoren die Albemarle maakt, leveren een belangrijke bijdrage aan verbetering van de luchtkwaliteit.

(Foto: Engelbert Fellinger)

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2002 | Dreiging van woningbouw

In 2002 is in het kader van het Structuurplan van de gemeente Amsterdam het voorstel besproken om woningen te bouwen in het Vliegenbos zodra de chemische fabriek zou weggaan. Dit voorstel was aanleiding voor de oprichting van de Stichting W.H. Vliegenbos. Op de foto Duco Stadig, destijds wethouder van ruimtelijke orde en volkshuisvesting van Amsterdam. (Bron: Beeldbank Amsterdam)

Het voorstel voor woningbouw is uiteindelijk onder druk van het Stadsdeel Amsterdam-Noord en de net opgerichte Stichting W.H.Vliegenbos niet in het Structuurplan opgenomen. Willem Vliegen heeft zich dus niet in zijn graf hoeven om te draaien. In 1911 sprak hij in de gemeenteraad al de hoop uit dat, als het bos bedreigd zou worden “er hier nog menschen zullen zitten die, als de bijl gezwaaid wordt, zullen zorgen, dat er van omhakken geen sprake zal zijn.” Die mensen zaten er en het Vliegenbos is nu opgenomen in de hoofdgroenstructuur van het Structuurplan van Amsterdam en daarmee veilig gesteld tot 2040.

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2012 | Het Bos bestaat 100 jaar

In 2012 bestaat het Vliegenbos 100 jaar. Deze mijlpaal wordt gevierd met muziek en festiviteiten in het bos, het boek ‘100 Jaar Vliegenbos’, een fotowedstrijd en een tentoonstelling in Museum de Noord. Ter ere van het 100-jarig bestaan komen aan de ingang van het bos ‘Parijse bogen’ te staan. De monumentale gietijzeren bogen, afkomstig uit de voormalige Vishallen in Parijs, zijn een geschenk van kunstenaar Peter Diem.De Parijse Vishalbogen benadrukken de water- en visrelatie van Parijs met de visserijnederzettingen en havens van de oorspronkelijke (13e eeuwse) dorpen ten noorden van het IJ. Het W.H. Vliegenbos is geplant op de plek, waar tot de Franse tijd de toegang was tot de Amsterdamse haven. Daarmee heeft deze plek ook Franse wortels. In het huidige W.H. Vliegenbos vindt de ontmoeting plaats tussen de Amsterdamse haven uit de Franse tijd en de Parijse Vishallen. De kleindochter van Willem Hubert Vliegen is aanwezig bij de feestelijke onthulling van de bogen!

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